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Sistemas de producción porcinos

Sistemas de producción porcinos

Sistema de producción porcicola

Los sistemas de producción hacer referencia Por una parte a la conformación y ubicación física de las etapas, así como el tipo de flujo de los animales al interior del establecimiento.

El sistema de producción es la forma cómo se distribuyen físicamente las diferentes etapas productivas de la explotación porcina, estas se dividen en tres clases:

1. Sistema de producción en un sitio

Dentro de este sistema todas las etapas de producción se encuentran en un mismo espacio físico.

En este tipo de sistema se han encontrado grandes desventajas debido a quién muchas de estas granjas el flujo de los animales se da de forma continua, es decir que los animales no se agrupan por edades, además, si este manejo es realizado, otra de sus desventajas es la gran cantidad de funciones que los operarios deben llevar a cabo, lo que indistintamente ayudará A qué la carga de patógenos de las instalaciones se vayan incrementando y de esta forma los parámetros productivos y sanitarios del establecimientos se ven afectados de forma negativa.

2. Sistema de producción en dos sitios

Existen dos maneras de manejar este sistema:

a- El sitio I comprende las secciones de cría Y precebos y en el sitio II la etapa de levante y de ceba.

b- El sitio I comprende únicamente la sección de cría y el II esta compuesto por precebos, levante y ceba.

La forma mas adecuada de manejas este sistema es la segunda, ya que de esta manera se minimiza el riesgo de transmisión vertical de enfermedades (de madre a hijo). Este sistema implica que los cerdos solo siguen un flujo descendente desde el sitio I al sitio II y nunca en sentido inverso.

3. Sistema de producción en tres sitios

Se caracteriza por tener tres espacios físicos separados de la siguiente manera:

  • Sitio I, compuesto por la sección de cría (montas, gestación y maternidad).
  • Sitio II, en el cual se hallan los precebos.
  • Sitio III, comprende el levante y la ceba.

La separación entre sitios debe ser de 500 metros o mas, dependiendo del estado sanitario de los animales, de la extension de terreno que se tenga y de la cercanía con otras explotaciones o con áreas urbanas.

De igual forma el personal es exclusivo para cada etapa y el flujo de animales es solo en sentido vertical descendente, del sitio I al sitio II y del sitio II al III. este sistema permite minimizar la transmisión vertical de enfermedades, aumentar la productividad en cada etapa y apartar los lechones antes de ser contagiados con enfermedades que tienen costo en el producto final.

Sin embargo, cabe aclarar que en Colombia, son muy pocas las granjas que usan este tipo de tecnología, principalmente se ve en granjas genéticas.

Ventajas y desventajas de los sistemas de producción.

Ventajas del sistema de un sitio frente a los sistemas de dos y tres sitios:

  • Menor inversión inicial
  • Menor requerimiento de terreno
  • Menor uso de instalaciones
  • Menor requerimiento de mano de obra

Desventajas del sistema de un sitio frente a los sistemas de dos y tres sitios

  • Mayor desgaste instalaciones
  • Altos costos de mantenimiento
  • Mayor riesgo de presentación y transmisión de enfermedades, por lo tanto mayores costos en tratamientos terapéuticos
  • Ineficiencia del trabajo por parte de los operarios debido a la carga laboral

Ventajas de los sistemas de dos y tres sitios, frente al de un solo sitio:

  • Menor riesgo de transmisión de enfermedades, debido a la separación de los animales por lote de edades, el vaciamiento y óptima limpieza y desinfección de los alojamientos al inicio de cada ciclo productivo.
  • Disminución del uso de medicamentos en alimento y agua, ya que las enfermedades son controladas por la aplicación de óptimas prácticas de manejo.
  • Reducción de los niveles de estrés en los animales y la maximizan del potencial genético de los animales.
  • Facilidades para la expansión física de la granja
  • Al mantener la granja con una baja incidencia de enfermedades de presentación tanto clínica como subclínica, se mejoran los parámetros de conservación y ganancia de peso. De esta manera, se pueden reducir los días de ceba o se pueden sacar animales de la misma edad y con más peso.
  • Facilita la aplicación de medidas de contingencia en el momento de emergencia sanitaria en cualquiera de las etapas.
  • Permite mayor especialización en el personal y trabajo, ya que cada operario tiene unas tareas específicas de acuerdo con el sitio en el que está trabajando.
  • Mayor eficiencia productiva y económica de la explotación.
  • Permite un manejo administrativo con mayor eficiencia.

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[…] de los principales interrogantes al momento de pensar en establecer una granja de producción de cerdos es la inversión que se requerirá, la cual está muy relacionada al número de vientres con que se […]

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CLICK HERE //www.talkwithwebvisitors.com to try Talk With Web Visitor now.

If you’d like to unsubscribe click here //talkwithwebvisitors.com/unsubscribe.aspx?d=laporcicultura.com

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